➶ The Decision Point Author David Patrick Houghton – Marjoriejane.co.uk

The Decision Point txt The Decision Point , text ebook The Decision Point , adobe reader The Decision Point , chapter 2 The Decision Point , The Decision Point fd2def Filling A Gap In The US Foreign Policy Textbook Market, This Innovative Introduction Shows Students How Real American Foreign Policy Makers Make Real Decisions Drawing On And Summarizing A Vast Amount Of Literature, Author David Patrick Houghton Introduces Students To Three Basic Theories Of Decision Making He Then Applies Each Of These Perspectives To Six Well Known Historical Cases That Range From Classic To Contemporary The Bay Of Pigs, The Cuban Missile Crisis, The Vietnam War, The Iran Hostage Crisis, The Kosovo War, And The Iraq War Houghton Uses The Crucial Decision Points Of These Events To Give Students A Sense Of What It Is Actually Like To Make High Level Decisions He Also Shows How The Theories Discussed In The Book Can Be Applied To These Case StudiesFeaturing A Direct, Accessible Writing Style, Coverage Of Recent Advances In The Field Including New Psychological Models Like Prospect Theory And Poliheuristic Theory And An Affordable Price, The Decision Point Six Cases In US Foreign Policy Decision Making Serves As A Perfect Text Or Supplement For Courses In US Foreign Policy And Foreign Policy Decision Making


About the Author: David Patrick Houghton

Is a well-known author, some of his books are a fascination for readers like in the The Decision Point book, this is one of the most wanted David Patrick Houghton author readers around the world.



10 thoughts on “The Decision Point

  1. says:

    This book outlines major theories of decision making and applies them to six different case studies in USFP The first is homo bureaucraticus This model analyzes assumes that different organizations CIA, Defense, State, Presidency,etc support policies that reflect the organization s interests and standard operating procedures Compromises between bureaucracies are needed to iron out these differences, but the resulting policies are really like outputs than decisions You get weird amalgams that make each branch happy but might not make much strategic sense, such as the decision to use multiple branches of the military for Operation Eagle Claw, including the switching of helicopter pilots into vehicles with which they were unfamiliar The solution to this problem appears to be strong executive vision and balancing among these squabbling bureaucracies.The second model is sociological It analyzes the small group, usually the President s foreign policy team This model focuses on the tendency of small, coherent groups under stress to value conformity and consensus over exploring all options or constantly revisiting assumptions and decisions People act as mind guards, discouraging others from voicing their problems once a policy is agreed upon This problem can produce bad policy decisions, such as the Bay of Pigs or the Vietnam escalation In each of these cases, certain members of the Cabinet dissuaded or intimidated dissenters and hewed to a certain policy for much too long The third model is psychological It analyzes individual emotion, cognition, and decision Anyone who s up on cognitive psychology Kahneman and Tversky stuff will be very familiar with this perspective The use of heuristics, analogical thinking, and the importance of emotion can all create problems in decision making These problems are probably unavoidable, but they can be mitigated by open, frank, and informed discussion I was struck by the abundance of analogical thinking in all of these cases Following the availability bias, decision makers frequently compared current cases to past cases that were either very recent or very prominent in their memories The problem was that the most recent or prominent case was often not the best one to compare to the present situation This was true over and over again in regards to Munich Hitler, Vietnam, Entebbe, and other analogies that often obfuscated the present situation rather than informing better policy These heuristics help us digest complex information and make decisions, but they can also be very misleading if we don t interrogate these biases frequently.The interesting thing about these models is that adopting one forces you to say that you think this level of analysis matters the most state, organization, small group, individual Of course, historians are skeptical of these kinds of categories, but organizing a history of foreign policy by these rough terms could be very useful They are interesting ideas to toy around with, and Houghton outlines their strengths and weaknesses very well He concludes that the bureaucratic and sociological models are best at explaining the processes by which policies are made, especially when bureaucratic clashes produce odd policy outcomes or when small groups create conformity around a certain consensus On the other hand, it s the psychological model that does the best job of explaining what policy is actually chosen because it is the best at explaining how individuals read and analyze a decision situation ILastly, I thought his case study of the decision to invade Iraq was the most thorough and compelling I wouldn t recommend this book to people who aren t in political science or history, but it s interesting and useful in its own way.


  2. says:

    I assigned this text for the US Foreign Policy course I taught at the Air Force Academy I highly recommend it Houghton clearly explains the major decision making models and theories and then illustrates these concepts through engaging case studies He gives fair treatment to each theory and addresses the strength and weakness of each theory in a given case A must for any student of foreign policy decision making.


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